Essential Element I. THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS
How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and
technologies to acquire, process, and report information
from a spatial perspective.
How to use mental maps to organize information about people, places,
and environments in a spatial context.
How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and
environments on Earth's surface.
Essential Element II. PLACES AND REGIONS
The physical and human characteristics of places.
That people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity.
How culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places
Essential Element VI. THE USES OF GEOGRAPHY
How to apply geography to interpret he past.
How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the
Culture: Social studies programs should include experiences
that provide for the study of culture and cultural diversity.
Time, Coninuity and Change: Social studies programs
should include experiences that provide for the study of the ways
in and over time.
People Places and Environments: Social studies programs
should include experiences that provide for the study of people,
Grand Basin and Electricity
Building, St. Louis World’s Fair
back prior to World War II to the heyday of fairs and expositions
in America which
awed millions of visitors with wondrous new inventions, exotic
cultures, and amusements galore. Mingle with luminaries such
as Helen Keller, Laura Ingalls Wilder, Theodore Roosevelt, and
Graham Bell. Discover the thrill of the Ferris wheel, the delicious
taste of the ice cream cone filled with your favorite flavor,
and a radio with pictures—all introduced to the public for
the first time through these venues. Although many of the buildings
are gone, you can still explore the sights and sounds through
artifacts, sound recordings, and motion pictures that have been
preserved and made available through modern technology.
Treasury of World's Fair Art & Architecture
The Architecture Library at the University of Maryland, College
Park has a fabulous collection of materials related to world's fairs.
In each of the online exhibits are wonderful graphics supplemented
with rich, detailed descriptions and quotes from contemporary magazines
and newspapers. This Web site is a good starting point for a research
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898)
The Trans-Mississippi International Exposition showcased the economic
progress of the West from the Mississippi to the Pacific. The concurrent
Indian Congress brought together 35 tribes that were to demonstrate
their mode of living and work. F. A. Rinehart, the official photographer
and only person permitted to take pictures, documented the exposition.
Click on Visit the F. A. Rinehart Photo Gallery to view these photographs.
Meet the architects and check the calendar for daily happenings.
Rounding out the information on the site is a map of the fair grounds
divided into areas for easy navigation.
Colombian Exposition (1893)
Visit the Colombian Exhibition, also known as the Chicago World's
Fair of 1893, on the shores of Lake Michigan. You will be one of
27 million visitors who celebrated the 400th anniversary of Columbus's
journey to America. The fair was touted as the greatest cultural
and entertainment event in the history of the world and provided
a venue to promote products such as Juicy Fruit Gum, ragtime music,
and Quaker Oats. While strolling down the midway, quench your thirst
with the newest drinks in town, carbonated beverages. Be sure to
visit Machinery Hall, where you can see Eli Whitney's cotton gin,
the latest sewing machines, and the world's largest conveyer belt.
Don't miss Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show accompanied by contemporary
illustrations of the event. Read about the reactions of fairgoers
and the legacy it left for America. After completing your virtual
tour, you should have some measure of the progress made up to 1893
and a better understanding of the political and social climate of
Illuminations: Revisiting the Buffalo Pan-American Exposition (1901)
Peruse the personal
accounts and stories of those who attended the 1901 Pan-American
Exhibition in Buffalo, New York.
View a menu from
a favorite fair restaurant or examine a map with all of the exhibits.
Souvenir trading cards provided to fair goers were a big hit. See
if you recognize any of the names of food manufacturers. In addition,
there are primary source documents that include books on art, architecture,
music, science, and technology. One article features a photograph
of Thomas Edison visiting the exhibition and his interview regarding
electricity. Innovations related to health and medical aspects of
the fair include the baby incubator and the emergency hospital. The
editorial in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal of July 18 and
25, 1901, is most fascinating. This site allows the reader to experience
the Buffalo Pan-American Exposition through rich and varied primary
resources—a must-visit for any history buff.
Celebrating the Louisiana Purchase (1904)
The scene is set, you've traveled many miles, and now you're ready
to enter the front gate of the St. Louis World's fair. Grand examples
of souvenirs, exhibits, costumes, and advertising are wonderfully
arranged in a variety of categories such as Meals and Lodging; People
Dress, and Customs; and Innovations on Display. Primary sources and
artifacts from the fair combined with snippets of information make
this site appealing for all ages.
Louisiana Purchase (1904)
descriptive narratives on this Web site are culled from The Greatest
of Expositions: Completely Illustrated,
in 1904 by the Samuel F. Myerson Printing Company, St. Louis, Missouri.
As a virtual traveler, you can relax and view the magnificent palaces
built in a variety of architectural styles, read about the exhibits,
and listen to lively ragtime music of the era like the "Palm
Leaf Rag" by Scott Joplin.
Panama Pacific International Exposition (1915-1916)
Seventy-six city blocks were cleared in San Francisco to celebrate
the completion of the Panama Canal and to commemorate the 400th anniversary
of Balboa's discovery of the Pacific Ocean. This site offers a view
of events through artifacts that include medals, watch fobs, replicas
of the Tower of Jewels (the largest building at the fair), pocketknives,
and pennants. The ever-popular Laura Ingalls Wilder, who attended
the fair while visiting her daughter, presents another perspective
of the fair. She writes vivid descriptions of the attractions in
letters mailed home to her husband. Glass negatives of the entertainment
and fair goers are displayed in the image gallery. There are even
3-D photos with instructions on how to acquire 3-D glasses. Read
about the awards given to exhibitors at the fair and why they were
so prized. Finally, what would a fair be if recipes were not tried
and shared? Try preparing one from L.L. McLaren's official fair cookbook.
Panama-California Exposition, San Diego 1915-1916
Take a postcard
tour of the San Diego Panama-California Exposition of 1915-1916
from the groundbreaking ceremonies of 1911
to the restored
buildings that remain today. Read how "East Meets West in Balboa
Park," included in the history of the exposition written by
Richard Amero. This site contains a vast collection of stereo cards
with photos of San Diego during the exposition. The cards provide
a 3-D effect to the images. Don't miss the film clips of Theodore
Roosevelt and his wife mingling with the crowds while visiting the
fair. There is also a movie with a panorama of the exhibition, close
ups of the attractions, and the cost of construction. Read how weather
had a major impact on the festivities during the first 3 months.
Finally, see what lasting effects the exhibition had on the quality
of life in San Diego.
Century of Progress 1933-1934
The Chicago Historical Society has organized a brief overview of
the Century of Progress fair held in Chicago from 1933-1934. Featured
are photographs of events and exhibition halls, artifacts such as
tickets and souvenirs, and a selected list of books.
Images from the 1939 NY World's Fair (1939-1940)
Sit back, relax, and explore the 1939 New York World's Fair through
a series of slide shows. Postcards, advertisements, comics, and posters
will delight the 21st-century sightseer and the art deco fan. Follow
the Middleton family through the Westinghouse exhibit and meet Elektro,
the amazing Westinghouse Moto-Man. Links to other online resources
are also listed.
Ticket to the
Colombian Exposition—50 cents
at the Pan-American Exposition—$1
Lunch at the
New York World's Fair—$2.50
of Grandma and her parents on the Ferris wheel—priceless
President McKinley reviewing the troops at the Pan-American Exposition
/ Thomas A. Edison, Inc.
Courtesy of The Library of Congress
"The Ferris Wheel Souvenir, Waltz and Polka," Sheet-music
cover, Chicago: Valisi & Giorgi Publishers, 1893. Courtesy of
Chicago Historical Society.
Bird's eye view of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
Courtesy of The Library of Congress